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Access to protected information must be restricted to people who are authorized to access the information. The computer programs, and in many cases the computers that process the information, must also be authorized. This requires that mechanisms be in place to control the access to protected information. The sophistication of the access control mechanisms should be in parity with the value of the information being protected; the more sensitive or valuable the information the stronger the control mechanisms need to be. The foundation on which access control mechanisms are built start with identification and authentication .

Access control is generally considered in three steps: identification, authentication , and authorization . [2]

Identification is an assertion of who someone is or what something is. If a person makes the statement "Hello, my name is John Doe " they are making a claim of who they are. However, their claim may or may not be true. Before John Doe can be granted access to protected information it will be necessary to verify that the person claiming to be John Doe really is John Doe. Typically the claim is in the form of a username. By entering that username you are claiming "I am the person the username belongs to".

Authentication is the act of verifying a claim of identity. When John Doe goes into a bank to make a withdrawal, he tells the Bottega Veneta Intrecciato heeled sandals pay with visa for sale eastbay cheap price outlet new arrival amazon sale online A7K27
he is John Doe, a claim of identity. The bank teller asks to see a photo ID, so he hands the teller his driver's license . The bank teller checks the license to make sure it has John Doe printed on it and compares the photograph on the license against the person claiming to be John Doe. If the photo and name match the person, then the teller has authenticated that John Doe is who he claimed to be. Similarly, by entering the correct password, the user is providing evidence that he/she is the person the username belongs to.

There are three different types of information that can be used for authentication:

Strong authentication requires providing more than one type of authentication information (two-factor authentication). The username is the most common form of identification on computer systems today and the password is the most common form of authentication. Usernames and passwords have served their purpose, but they are increasingly inadequate. [53] Usernames and passwords are slowly being replaced or supplemented with more sophisticated authentication mechanisms such as Time-based One-time Password algorithms .

After a person, program or computer has successfully been identified and authenticated then it must be determined what informational resources they are permitted to access and what actions they will be allowed to perform (run, view, create, delete, or change). This is called authorization . Authorization to access information and other computing services begins with administrative policies and procedures. The policies prescribe what information and computing services can be accessed, by whom, and under what conditions. The access control mechanisms are then configured to enforce these policies. Different computing systems are equipped with different kinds of access control mechanisms. Some may even offer a choice of different access control mechanisms. The access control mechanism a system offers will be based upon one of three approaches to access control, or it may be derived from a combination of the three approaches. [2]

Privacy and Security
AJ Dellinger

In the latest incident of seemingly innocuous data sharing leading to potentially dangerous exposure, the popular fitness app and activity trackers Polar Flow has been revealing the location of military and government personnel working at sensitive locations, according to ZDNet .

The report cites an investigation conducted by Dutch news site De Correspondent and Bellingcat , which discovered it was possible to find workout information recorded by Polar Flow and use it to potentially identify the names employees working at military bases and government buildings.

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Per ZDNet , the technique included accessing the developer API from Polar, the Finnish-based company that produces Polar Flow. Through the API, a person can not only explore public data that users willingly share, but could also retrieve fitness tracking information from users who have their profiles set to private. The API also didn’t put a limit on the number of requests a person could make, so it was feasibly possible that someone could scrape information from the millions of users who rely on Polar Flow to track their workouts.

Using that essentially unfettered access, it became possible to identify people working at sensitive locations like military bases. De Correspondent explained the technique simply required looking up a known government or military installation, finding a work out that was tracked there, then exploring that user’s other workouts. Odds are, the user has worked out at or near their home in the past.

Those few data points allowed the researchers to identify more than 6,400 users believed to be working at sensitive locations. According to ZDNet , the researchers pegged employees of the NSA, the White House, British intelligence agency MI6, the Russian GRU, and others. That data was also used to identify staff at nuclear storage facilities, missile silos, prisons, and locations like Guantanamo Bay.

Once a user is exposed through the technique discovered in the investigation, their locations become a lot more interesting and potentially revealing. For example, reporters at De Correspondent were able to spot users identified as foreign military and intelligence officers working out near sensitive government locations in the US.

Polar acknowledged the issue in a statement and said the situation is being addressed, though it downplayed the potential seriousness of the data exposure:


What an interesting few weeks it has been since the funding agencies released details about priorities for next year and our funding agreements.

Without a shadow of doubt up and down the land the collective wringing of principals’ hands will be taking place.

What to do with less? That is the question of the moment and while some colleges are going all out for sometimes risky alternative income streams and growth, many are managing contraction of staff and, dare I say it, the curriculum offer itself.

Which begs the question about learner choice — what of the humble learner, those for whom we exist and serve?

Then, of course, while we’re all living with less we’re also expected to deliver higher standards and quality or we will be in the Ofsted naughty books, too.

Waiting in the wings is Dr David Collins, the FE Commissioner, and his team of trusty advisers ready to catch you when you fall, or not as the case may be.

So what has been achieved by the introduction of the role of FE Commissioner?

Has there been a miraculous turnaround of a failing college? Has the intervention had a positive impact on learners? Or is it simply another layer of bureaucracy to an already heavily burdened sector groaning under the sheer weight and volume of audits, inspections and accreditations.

Perhaps if the sector were to be more commercial and truly market and customer-driven we should be less regulated rather than further regulated by the likes of the FE Commissioner and allowed to get on with the job of educating and training rather than the constant looking over the shoulder we currently have?

Which leads me to another point — it would appear we have a crisis in the sector now and for the future. Simply put, where is the next generation of leaders ?

I work hard in my own college to foster a culture of ambition for younger staff members who have the determination and energy we so badly need in what is a very demanding role.

But so many are put off by the thought of the journey through management into leadership roles. The chances appear limited to many of them and the journey simply does not appeal. Why is that?

Part of the problem is the lack of a really well thought-out and developed programme similar to the Learning and Skills Improvement Service senior leaders and aspiring principals programmes which, sadly, has now withered on the vine.

The sector does need to sort this problem out quickly in my view or we will have our very own self-made skills shortage and be found wanting.

Maybe Dr Collins could and should advise young Mr Hancock to switch the focus of the commissioner’s role away from the punitive reactionary model and toward a supportive, and enriching role that enables colleges to develop, flourish and grow.

Come on Dr Collins, you know you want to.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation) .
Feedback exists between two parts when each affects the other.
A feedback loop where all outputs of a process are available as causal inputs to that process

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of outlet latest Saint Laurent Joe sneakers buy cheap newest manchester great sale cheap price MKNn5ayP
that forms a circuit or loop. [2] The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to feedback systems:

Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, and it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole.



Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity, and the idea of feedback had started to enter economic theory in Britain by the eighteenth century, but it wasn't at that time recognized as a universal abstraction and so didn't have a name. [4]

The verb phrase "to feed back", in the sense of returning to an earlier position in a mechanical process, was in use in the US by the 1860s, [5] LifeStride Quiz Womens Flats pre order online sale prices pick a best RkVffh9
and in 1909, Nobel laureate Moncler Evelyne platform slides discount countdown package outlet latest collections ntzq5MirTh
used the term "feed-back" as a noun to refer to (undesired) coupling between components of an electronic circuit. [7]

By the end of 1912, researchers using early electronic amplifiers ( audions ) had discovered that deliberately coupling part of the output signal back to the input circuit would boost the amplification (through regeneration ), but would also cause the audion to howl or sing. [8] This action of feeding back of the signal from output to input gave rise to the use of the term "feedback" as a distinct word by 1920. [8]

Over the years there has been some dispute as to the best definition of feedback. According to Ashby (1956), mathematicians and theorists interested in the principles of feedback mechanisms prefer the definition of circularity of action , which keeps the theory simple and consistent. For those with more practical aims, feedback should be a deliberate effect via some more tangible connection.

Focusing on uses in management theory, Ramaprasad (1983) defines feedback generally as "...information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter" that is used to "alter the gap in some way." He emphasizes that the information by itself is not feedback unless translated into action. [9]


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